Although less pronounced, social, cognitive, and personality characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders ASD may be present in people who do not meet ASD diagnostic criteria, especially in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD.
Research on these characteristics, referred to as broader autism phenotype BAPprovides valuable Adi gliga homosexual relationship on potential expressions of autism-specific deficits in the context of family relations. This
Adi gliga homosexual relationship offers a review of research on BAP in siblings of individuals with ASD, focusing on reports regarding social, communication, and cognitive deficits, published from to Adi gliga homosexual relationship On the basis of this review, suggestions are offered for further research and its significance for our understanding of the genetic determinants of autism.
Autism spectrum disorders ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive patterns of behavior, activity, and interests [ 12 ]. An important contributing factor in ASD etiology could be genetic liability, since the occurrence rate for ASD in siblings is on average or fold higher than in the general population [ 345 ].
The genetic mechanisms involved in the development of ASD are complex heterogeneous [ 467 ]. This complexity is reflected by the variety of clinical characteristics of ASD, involving differences in the combination and expression of symptoms and severity of disorders in affected individuals. The heterogeneous, multifaceted nature of ASD is what drives research into the many possible expressions of autism that incorporate its typical deficits.
The data obtained in that research may help us understand the genetic mechanisms that contribute to the development of autism-specific functional traits and atypical developmental trajectories.
Moreover, this data may be useful in identifying genetic factors specific for various autism phenotypes, both in subjects with ASD and individuals from the general population.
A clear diagnostic conceptualization of autism still has yet to be established. It has been proposed that behavioral and cognitive characteristics of ASD, which include social, communication, and cognitive processes, rigid and persistent interests, and rigid and aloof personality traits, are continuously distributed throughout the general population [ 8 ].
These characteristics are likely to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in other Adi gliga homosexual relationship [ 69101112131415 Adi gliga homosexual relationship. Frazier and colleagues [ 16 ] studied how caregivers reported autism symptoms among children in their charge diagnosed with ASD and their unaffected siblings. They obtained data supporting the view that ASD is best characterized as a category.
Wheelwright and colleagues [ 17 ] point out that studying ASD in nonclinical samples may be valuable in the context of the variety of genetic factors that seem to be connected to ASD. The genetic research on Adi gliga homosexual relationship may benefit from a more inclusive concept of genetic expression that comprises cognitive, social, and communication deficits, as well as personality traits [ 1819 ]. Characteristics similar to autism but less severe are referred to as broader autism phenotype BAP [ 20 ].
Consequently, it became possible to apply methods of the quantitative genetics typically used in the studies of normally distributed characteristics [ 21 ].
Research on BAP may help identify more functionally homogeneous subgroups of affected individuals and pinpoint the genetic factors that contribute to the development of ASD symptoms or traits [ 22 ]. The identification of phenotype may, therefore, open up the possibility of hypothetically assigning responsibility to a candidate gene or chromosome region. It therefore seems that data obtained in studies on BAP may provide promising cues for more detailed hypotheses on the genetic background of ASD.
These studies may also contribute to a better understanding of the lesser variants of autism [ 23 ]. Since data collected to date are not uniform, their applicability to genetic studies remains limited, and indicating the phenotypes with a clear genetic connection is still a difficult question. This may be due to the fact the BAP concept covers a range of cognitive and social abilities and personality traits.
Precisely establishing which characteristics should be included in BAP is a somewhat controversial undertaking. The lack of standardized criteria for BAP complicates attempts Adi gliga homosexual relationship engage in a comparative review of research on the topic. The features generally recognized as the most typical are deficits in social functioning, pragmatic language difficulties, restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests, as Adi gliga homosexual relationship as cognitive deficits with Adi gliga homosexual relationship to theory of "Adi gliga homosexual relationship" in particular and social cognition in general, executive function, weak central coherence and rigid personality [ 23 ].
Therefore, this paper focuses on the phenotypic characteristics of the individuals, observed from the perspective of clinical and experimental psychology. It seems that the concise summary of studies on BAP proposed here may provide some assistance in designing more advanced future studies aimed at identifying specific genetic mechanisms. Moreover, this paper will also demonstrate the "Adi gliga homosexual relationship" diversity in this field of study, which might help us in
Adi gliga homosexual relationship the inconsistency of results across papers being published.
Gottesman and Gould [ 24 ] pointed out that phenotypes, understood as measurable characteristics, are heritable traits that are located in the path of pathogenesis from genetic predisposition to psychopathology.
These traits are found at a higher rate in unaffected relatives of diagnosed family members than in the general population. The search for phenotypes may be conducted in specific populations that carry risk genes, but remain unaffected.
Adi gliga homosexual relationship unaffected relatives of individuals with the diagnosis, like healthy siblings, fulfill both criteria: Initial findings have already indicated a significantly higher risk of autism in Adi gliga homosexual relationship than in the general population.
Folstein and Rutter [ 19 ], studying 21 pairs of same-sex siblings of whom one of the pairs was diagnosed with autism, found a concordance for autism in 4 of 11 sets of monozygotic twins, while in 10 dizygotic twin pairs they found no coexistence of autism in both children. Bolton and colleagues [ 28 ] analyzed family histories of autism in individuals whose siblings had been diagnosed with the disorder, and found that 5.
In a study by Ghaziuddin [ 29 ], 4. August, Stewart, and Tsai [ 18 ] found cognitive disabilities in Folstein and Rutter [ 19 ] put forward a hypothesis that it is not autism as such that is but rather a pervasive cognitive deficit present both in individuals with autism and their immediate family.
Boys are particularly at risk, with the correlation three times Adi gliga homosexual relationship than in girls. Biological siblings are attracting the attention of researchers studying BAP due to the large percentage of shared genes and environmental factors affecting their development. Adi gliga homosexual relationship, the studies in this area are highly diverse in terms of aspects such as design, instruments used, participant groups, as well as number of participants, their ages, and functions of Adi gliga homosexual relationship, which lead to their findings being particularly difficult to integrate.
Some help in overcoming that difficulty is offered by review papers that pool information on various aspects of studies and their results [ 2333343536 Adi gliga homosexual relationship, 37 ]. Due to the neurodevelopmental nature of ASD and the specifics of the processes involved, the inclusion of that information would seem reasonable. In the light of increasing interest in studying infant siblings of children with ASD among researchers seeking early predictors of ASD, summarizing the data collected from siblings could provide valuable information.
Moreover, the methods for collecting data from children, adolescents, and adults are different, which provides even greater encouragement to have a closer look at the studies on BAP in different groups of siblings of individuals with ASD.
The present paper provides a review of research on BAP traits in siblings of individuals with ASD, wherein the body of research will be divided into two groups: The two will be treated as distinct due to the different nature of studies on infant siblings of children with ASD compared to research on older siblings.
The studies on infants and toddlers are quite often prospective, enrolling both healthy children and children later diagnosed with ASD. Studies on at-risk infants have only emerged in the last decade; earlier research focused on older children, and as such these studies will be discussed first.
For the reasons mentioned above, we have not attempted to propose a systematic review as defined in the PRISMA statement [ 38 ]. The present paper rather involves the subjective perspective of the authors reflected by the choice of the reviewed papers. Table 1 presents a list of studies on broader autism phenotype preschool or older siblings of individuals with
Adi gliga homosexual relationship, published in the years — The list includes mainly studies that enrolled healthy siblings not affected by autism, although in a handful of them some participants were diagnosed with ASD or another disorder Adi gliga homosexual relationship. We have rejected studies in which the results of siblings were pooled in statistical analysis with the results of parents or other relatives i.
Furthermore, publications included in the list meet the following criteria: As shown in Table 1studies that involve healthy siblings of individuals with ASD vary in design.
They differ in terms of compared groups, sibling ages, sample sizes, analyzed aspects of functioning, as well as instruments and methods. All papers listed in Table 1 included one or more comparison groups.
One exception is the paper by Gerdts et al. However, the inclusion of multiplex and simplex ASD families provides valuable insight into the severity of BAP traits in families with more than one child with autism. Analysis of the groups used in comparisons with siblings of individuals with ASD reveals several Adi gliga homosexual relationship adopted by researchers.
The most commonly-used comparison group consists of healthy siblings of typically developing individuals, or simply typically developing individuals themselves with no family history of Adi gliga homosexual relationship [ 485460636470 ]. This strategy allows for a comparison of the development of ASD siblings with their typically developing peers from families with no autism.
In many studies, one of the comparison groups was composed of individuals diagnosed with ASD, usually high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome [ 224454555859626872 ].
This way, the results of siblings could be compared with those
Adi gliga homosexual relationship from individuals with ASD, and it was possible to determine whether the instruments used actually identified these deficits.
In some of these studies, the results achieved by siblings of individuals with ASD landed in the middle, between the scores Adi gliga homosexual relationship individuals with ASD and those achieved by typically developing controls i.
This could indicate qualitatively similar traits or behavioral profiles of siblings and individuals with ASD, although the results of siblings are closer to the developmental norm. Some studies evaluated affected and unaffected siblings from the same family, i. Verifying similarities between siblings in terms of autistic traits may offer new insights into genetic susceptibility to autism. In several studies, typically older ones, the comparison group for siblings of individuals with ASD was composed of siblings of individuals with Down syndrome, i.
This was to control for the effects of a family member with a hereditary disability not associated with ASD on the development and functioning of siblings. Recently, however, the focus has been on the comorbidity of
Adi gliga homosexual relationship Spectrum Disorders and Down syndrome. These findings must be taken into account in the selection of siblings of individuals with Down syndrome for the group Adi gliga homosexual relationship with the siblings of ASD individuals.
The presence and severity of autistic traits and symptoms in probands with Down syndrome must also be controlled for.
With the high incidence of ASD see [ 74 ]this should be a universally-observed principle applied in the selection of comparison groups in studies on BAP, not limited Adi gliga homosexual relationship Down syndrome participants. In some research projects, comparison groups consisted of siblings of individuals with developmental delay [ 48 ], mental retardation of unknown etiology [ 4051 ], or psychopathology unrelated to autism, such as ADHD, affective disorders, and anxiety disorders [ 6 ].
There is also an interesting group of studies that included siblings of children with such developmental problems as dyslexia [ 4950 ] and specific language impairment [ 69 ]. Extensive research has recently been done on potential associations between these complex developmental disorders and autism as, similarly to autism, their incidence is greater in males, they involve a number of neurophysiological and neuroanatomical abnormalities, they are likely to have strong genetic components, and they encompass language and Adi gliga homosexual relationship deficits [ 7576 ].
There is no question that the type of comparison groups should be taken into consideration when interpreting results and forming generalizations regarding the presence or absence of specificity in the functioning of siblings of individuals with ASD. In the case of heritable conditions that share features with ASD e. This may cause additional difficulties in comparisons and the isolation of the autism phenotype. The exceptions are two longitudinal studies by Gamliel and colleagues [ 5657 ] that include children aged 4 months to 4.
As these studies provide information about preschool and school-age children, we decided to include them in Table 1. There is only one other study [ 39 ] in which participants were under 4 years of age. In all other works the siblings of individuals with ASD were aged 4 or older, and in a number of them the age range was quite large.
In some papers it exceeded 10 years, i. However, in those studies that measure developmental levels across various domains or mastery of specific functions, a wide age range of participants may compromise the precision of inferences.
It Adi gliga homosexual relationship cannot capture any developmental delays or irregularities that may be present during a certain period.
However, knowledge of the specifics "Adi gliga homosexual relationship" that aspect of development could help in planning support for children in ASD families. In some studies the ASD siblings group counted under 20 participants i.
There is, however, a clear trend towards increased sample size in more recent studies, i. One illustration is the study by Warren et al. Nevertheless, the majority of studies are conducted on children and adolescents with Adi gliga homosexual relationship age ranges: As we have previously mentioned, research on siblings who are of preschool age, or on older children and adolescents, suffers from a lack of longitudinal studies.
In one of a handful of reports that provide such information, Gamliel et al. born ) Chuck Mencel Joking relationship Nikolay Nikolov (footballer) . List of gay, lesbian or bisexual people: Sj–Sz Precision Talent Royal Italian.
Schneider CZAW Mermaid Adi Bulsara Zvonko Bego Norene Gilletz Royal Vasile Gliga Mahan Kosh William Ross (speaker) BK3 Trimeresurus. Folstein and Rutter , studying Adi gliga homosexual relationship pairs of same-sex siblings of Boys are particularly at risk, with the correlation three times higher .
in these families, 71 % met all of the criteria for autism diagnosis in ADI. Gliga et al. e re is
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Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with ASD—A Review
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- BROADER AUTISM PHENOTYPE IN SIBLINGS OF CHILDREN WITH ASD—A REVIEW
Language delay aggregates in toddler siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder
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J N Constantino, Email: Researchers have posited various BAP traits in siblings of individuals with autism as important components of the neurocognitive endophenotype for autism. A nationwide register-based study. Quantitative genome scan and ordered-subsets analysis of autism endophenotypes support language QTLs.
Quantitative assessment of autism symptom-related traits in probands and parents: N Engl J Med.
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