Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of " The Muslim Question in Europe: The Muslim question in Europe: Temple University Press, Includes bibliographical references and index. Muslims — Europe — Politics and government. Islam and politics— Europe. M87 DDC Messy Politics Afterword References Index Acknowledgments I have accumulated many debts in the gestation of this study.
Arleen Harri- son superintends an able and amiable cadre of student research assistants without whose reliable and competent support this book would not have "Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship" possible.
Special thanks go to Ana Esparza and Alyssa Alfaro, who compiled the reference lists. Trinity University thrice awarded me summer research stipends as well as academic leaves in and The students gave me valuable feedback for what amounted to an initial presentation of the general argument of the book. The seren- dipitous ways in which my scholarship intersects with that of Garth and Elizabeth Key Fowden make our annual visits whether in Fimni, Berlin, or X Acknowledgments Cambridge highly stimulating.
Those stays would never have been as delightful as they were for us without the indispensable assis- tance and dear friendship of Doris Thiirmann and Frank Gottsmann and Barbara and Gottfried Giigold. Finally, I dedicate the book to the younger generation of our loving extended and blended family. May these fine young adults devise and implement more constructive and congenial ways to live with diversity than my generation has! Clashes within Civilization The most striking feature of contemporary moral utterance is that so much of it is used to express disagreements, and the most Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship feature of the debates in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character.
There seems to be no rational way of securing moral agreement in our culture. This is no less true of Europe, where an estimated twenty million Mus- lims now reside mostly as a result of large-scale postwar immigration.
Indeed, a central conclusion of this book is that Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship Muslims disagree vehemently but generally along the same ideological contours of discord that generate controversy among non- Muslim Europeans. I urge instead that we start from the premise of clashes within West- ern civilization.
I have in mind profound philosophical-turned-political fissures that have emerged in the modern era. Mass immigration of Muslims to Europe presented a particularly salient but hardly the lone occasion "Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship" these strains to resurface and intensify beginning in the s in Britain and on the Continent in the s and s.
Heightened salience involved what Miller observed as the shift of immigration issues from low to 2 Chapter 1 high politics from little noticed or discussed to highly salient, appearing regularly in headlines, political speeches, international summits, and so Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship. One common way of reading this switch from low to high politics is to con- tend that the newcomers caused the problems that merited the heightened attention. This is the reading I want to counter.
Before I outline and label the outlooks generating the tensions, let us take a moment to look concretely at some of the political controversies surrounding European Muslims. This will allow the wider contours
Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship I want to stress to come into relief, including why these intense con- troversies are not likely to be resolved any time soon.
Those who support
Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship the veil as the French government has done in public schools since contend that the sartorial religious practice not only exemplifies but also proselytizes for the oppression women.
Many feel that Western European publics and governments fail the test miserably. Consider additionally the issue of secularism.
In contrast Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship the Unit- ed States, with its legal separation of church and state, most Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship governments have long-standing formal or informal relationships with Christian and Jewish denominations.
It is only natural that European Muslims would seek to gain similar state aid for Islam, and they have done just that in virtually every European Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship where they com- prise a critical mass Laurence Typically, Muslims Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship demanded that they alone should determine the Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship and content of publicly sub- sidized Islamic instruction.
After all, must one be a devout, even erudite Muslim to know what is most important about Islam to impart to pupils? While some want officials to spurn any relationship with Islam al- together, others call on the state to monitor and regulate public Islamic education in order to ensure that its form and content Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship not transgress liberal democratic tenets for instance, gender equality. Several Muslim organizations have taken umbrage at this paternalistic supervision, assailing it as thinly veiled cul- tural imperialism of the most insidious variety.
Indignantly they have established their own privately funded and operated Islamic schools. In- deed, a few of these schools and the organizations that oversee them have been exposed as breeding grounds for vehemently at times violently anti-Western thoughts, deeds, and actors.
Yet nothing approaching consensus regarding the best way to guarantee security seems discernible. Some have interpreted the terrorist attacks as a wake-up call that Western govern- ments have put their publics at undue risk by maintaining a policy of rela- tively open and easy immigration and by granting extensive civil, political, and social rights to the newcomers. Ask questions and prove guilt later!
One need only illustrate this stance as such to bring immediately to mind the counter-argument: A free society cannot be a percent-secure society. Moreover, a demonstrable com- mitment to liberty and equality represents, in the end, the most effective weapon against the terrorists and their would-be sympathizers, a position opponents consider to be the utmost and perilous expression of bleeding- heart naivete.
Add to these arguments the viewpoint that the fixation on Muslims "Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship" potential terrorists by the Western media and unofficially by 4 Chapter 1 security officials whose profiling targets Muslims represents not only an apocryphal distortion, not only an ire-raising affront to peace-loving Mus- lims, but, because it is both, the single most effective recruiting tool for the very terrorists whom European governments wish to thwart.
Why the pre- occupation with immigration? After all, most of the London Tube bombers and Paris shooters were British subjects and French citizens born in Britain and France, respectively. Europe has been spawning homegrown terrorism since at least the anarchists of the nineteenth century. Investigate the rea- sons why rather than scapegoat Islam.
In this sampling of the controversies, we can detect three normative poles around which the vying stances cluster.
Each pole represents some- thing akin to a moral center of gravity that yields a moral compass one can use to chart an ethical way through any specific issue arising from immigra- tion.
The first pole underscores equality and liberty for all. This second moral compass points to immo- rality whenever the well-being and continued flourishing of that we-ness, however understood, seems imperiled. The third pole Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship actu- ally an amoral pole. Its pointer signals trouble whenever it detects a claim to possess the moral high ground.
This book contends that these three broadly understood philosoph- ical traditions schools of Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship represent the most influential norma- tive forces in the politics of immigration in Europe today.
Other isms, such as Protestantism, Catholicism, communism, fascism, and explicit racism, have drifted to the margins; others clearly more centrally visible, such as democratic socialism, feminism, multiculturalism, implicit racism, and Introduction: Clashes within Civilization 5 Islamism, can be and are in this book interpreted as variants subcatego- ries of the broader three public philosophies. Liberalism, Nationalism, and Postmodernism I strongly wish to avoid misunderstanding in regard to labels.
Labels inevitably involve generalization. I concur with Peter Gay It emerged among brave, forward-looking men and women of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries who sought to liberate humankind from the twin forces of darkness: Liberalism insists on the inherent equality of all persons regardless of where and when they exist.
Furthermore, each individual must have an equal and voluntary say in determining the laws that govern him or her. Democracy, on this view, also represents the surest way to foster impar- tial government — that is, a government of laws based on rational, universal principles rather than of individuals moved by whimsical desire.
Initially enunciated in philosophical treatises, these ideas eventually became an- chored never perfectly in law first in countries such as Great Britain, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and France and eventually in the rest of Europe and beyond in what we today generally recognize as liberal democratic governments.
Liberal laws established rights of property and person against arbitrary seizure, led to the abolition of serfdom and slav- ery, and gradually whittled away at forms of legal discrimination. Over time liberal democratic laws extended the franchise to more and more persons.
Liberal laws established not only the free market but also, in time, the regu- lation of that market with an eye to redistributing its rewards more equita- bly throughout society. Marshall so famously traced in Citi- zenship and Social Class I gloss over the sniping from the left charging conventional liberalism with possessive individualism as well as the scare tactics from the right equating social democracy with creeping communist totalitarianism.
The two generally agree on the same lofty goal of emancipating individuals; they differ only on the means to achieve it — an honest, consequential, but ultimately intramural debate. Wherever humans feel humiliated, dehumanized, or forced to act against their will, they can turn to liberal values for moral support. They have done so and they continue to do so.
Liberalism remains vital in our times thanks to the boost it has received from compelling intellectuals such as John Rawls and Jurgen Habermas and from activists such as Martin Tuther King, Jr.
It has been — in fits and starts no doubt — transforming our world from one oriented around corporate iden- tities and entrenched stratifications to one centered on the individual un- leashed to smash in time hierarchies of all sorts in favor of human rights and democratic governance. Nationalism emerged in protest against liberal universalism. They maintained instead that people were funda- mentally different and that these inerasable differences stemmed from being members of different nations.
Moreover, they share as well a common expectation and hope that their na- tion will survive and thrive into the future so that their progeny will be able Introduction: Clashes within Civilization 7 to inherit, honor, and contribute to their culture and its collective achieve- ments.
It deductively follows that each nation or people must govern its own affairs, must have its own state.
The nation-state, understood as the best possible congruence between nation and state, represents the moral and political ideal of nationalism. Despite a comparatively
Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship discrediting by its association with fascism, nationalism has been revived as a normative public philosophy in the work of prominent postwar scholars such as David Miller, Dominique Schnapper, Alain de Benoist, Marco Tarchi, Huntington, and Ernst-Wolfgang Bokenforde.
The first flowed forth over the course of the nineteenth century and transformed Europe and the Americas from a continent of absolutist empires and smaller kingdoms into one of nation- states. A second wave washed across Africa and Asia as new nations-states often fledgling and cobbled-together sought independence from European colonial empires.
A third wave drowned the Soviet Bloc starting in Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship formed the independent nation-states of Central Europe and Central Asia. Because 97 percent of people live in their birth country Hampshire All Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship need do to discover the importance of passports all of which, save Vatican City, are at this point national is to set out on international travel. It is hard to imagine a norma- tive political vision that has had a greater concrete impact on the modern era than nationalism.
Postmodernism too entails a critique of Enlightenment liberalism. But its critique reaches far beyond liberalism to a rejection of any and all claims to absolute certainty, including the sense of wholeness and purpose "Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship" the members of a nation can purportedly enjoy when securely ensconced in a national polity. An instructive metaphor here is anti-foundationalism. Post- modernism represents an experiment to approach life precariously even precipitously without a metaphysical foundation that anchors us in some 8 Chapter 1 self-serving illusion that our existence fits neatly into a greater order or serves some ultimate end.
Nietzsche averred that what we take for absolute truth is but a lie that we have conveniently forgotten is a lie. Alleged truths are noth- more than linguistic metaphors rather than facts that correspond to an objective reality that Honig vegan ersatz homosexual relationship their validity.
Our existence is ultimately one of infinite metaphors or contingent perspectives with no final arbiter to de- termine which of them is objectively true. Furthermore, what drives each perspective is a cloaked, deeply rooted will to power, a largely unconscious psychological urge to dominate others by forcing them to conform to our preferred interpretation of how the world ought to be.
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The below article by Marcie Bianco was first featured in Extraordinary, when several out lesbian celebrities were starting to more strongly advocate for animal rights and the case for vegetarianism and veganism.
Six years later, prevailing vegan has increased in stylishness both for humanitarian and wholeness reasons. And if lesbians indeed are largely vegetarian, are we healthier?
How significant of a role do we play in protecting animals? Our diet, as the term we give to the daily habits pertaining to the energy we consume in order to enable and sanction our life, is an elemental part of our ethics on the bible of Foucault specifically, volume 3 of The Dead letter of Sexuality tells me so.
It also refers to when you eat, how you mingle your foods, and choosing the foods that are good in the direction of your body. The question of how sexuality influences dietary lifestyle is nothing new. Velez-Mitchell narrated her own story of comely vegan not only through some garish examples of how vital part and dairy are produced; did you know that meat building is the largest greenhouse gas contributor? No group of sentient beings is more exploited and neglected than the billions of cows, pigs, lambs, chickens and turkeys trapped in factory farms.
Ellen DeGeneres and other sedately known members of the gay community have made this end a top priority. The easiest way to help animals trapped in the horrors of industrial farming is simply not to eat them.
As an unconfined lesbian I find my veganism goes hand in hand with my sexual orientation.
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A free society cannot be a percent-secure society. The liberal state should focus its atten- tion on guaranteeing rights rather than supporting a particular vision of the good life. In season 10's "The Emotion Detection Automaton", Howard tells Raj that if they are both unattached in the next thirty years, he would be open to the two of them having a relationship.
There can be little doubt that one consequence of the ongoing Kulturkampf is a hardening of positions among some adversaries. To do so, European states must work to realize the cosmopolitan norm that all long-term residents should enjoy full rights of citizenship regardless of their race, ethnicity, national- ity, language, culture, and religion.
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